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    CartoCSS Properties

    Each CartoCSS map category has its own configurable properties. You can apply multiple symbolizers and properties to the same map layer. Navigate to a selected symbolizer to view a description of the CartoCSS property, sample CartoCSS code, the default value, and the available values.

    Note: CARTO is currently maintaining this library of CartoCSS properties and values. This content was adapted from the open source material provided by Mapbox, who has ceased active development of CartoCSS documentation.

    CartoCSS Symbolizer

    Polygon (polygon) Line (lines and polygons) Markers (points, lines, and polygons)
    Shield (points and lines) Line Pattern (lines and polygons) Polygon Pattern (polygons)
    Raster (grid data layers) Point (points) Text (points, lines, and polygons)
    Building    

    CartoCSS Values

    Color Float URI
    String Boolean Expression
    Numbers Percentages Functions

    Other CartoCSS Parameters

    Common Elements Map Background and String Elements Debug mode

    In addition to customizing the look of your maps using CartoCSS, CARTO provides additional CartoCSS properties that you can apply to Torque style maps. For details, see CartoCSS Properties for Torque Style Maps.

    Torque CartoCSS Properties

    -torque-frame-count -torque-animation-duration -torque-time-attribute
    -torque-aggregation-function -torque-resolution -torque-data-aggregation

    Common Elements

    These common element CartoCSS properties can be applied to any feature layer in a map. A feature layer is any data layer that contains points, lines, or polygons (not a basemap).

    comp-op image-filters opacity float

    comp-op keyword

    Description The composite operation define how a layer behaves, relative to the layers around it. For example, you can style the way colors of overlapping markers interact.
    Sample CartoCSS Code comp-op: src-over;
    Default Value src-over, adds the current layer on top of other layers.
    Available Values clear src dst src-over dst-over src-in dst-in src-out dst-out src-atop dst-atop xor plus minus multiply screen overlay darken lighten color-dodge color-burn hard-light soft-light difference exclusion contrast invert invert-rgb grain-merge grain-extract hue saturation color value
    Related Example See CartoCSS Composite Operations for a description of composite operation effects.

    Note: The comp-op value can be applied as an overall style effect, or it can be applied to the specific symbolizer property, depending on the color blending (or alpha blending) operation that you are trying to achieve. For details, see Composite Operation Effects.

    image-filters function

    Description A list of image filters that applies a defined style to the active rendering canvas.
    Sample CartoCSS Code image-filters: functions(value, value, value);
    Default Value none, no filters applied.
    Available Values See functions.
    Related Examples You can add multiple image-filters to a layer, which creates a new active canvas and renders all of the defined styles, before compositing everything back into the main canvas. For example: image-filters:colorize-alpha(blue, cyan, green, yellow , orange, red);

    Applying stack-blur can help with gradient rendering of the image, i.e, image-filters: agg-stack-blur(#,#);.Note: There is a known issue about how tile edges are appearing.

    opacity float

    Description An alpha value for the style. This indicates that the alpha value is applied to all features in a separate buffer, then composited back to main buffer.
    Sample CartoCSS Code opacity: 1;
    Default Value 1, no separate buffer is used and no alpha is applied to the style after rendering.
    Available Values See float.

    Map Background and String Elements

    These generic CartoCSS background and string element properties can be applied to any layer in a map.

    background-image background-image-comp-op background-image-opacity
    buffer-size    

    background-image uri

    Description An image that appears as the map background. This image appears underneath any other applied styles on the map.
    Sample CartoCSS Code background-image: url(imageurl);
    Default Value This parameter is not applied by default. The default background image is transparent.
    Available Values See uri.

    Note: The background-image-uri CartoCSS property is only supported when using the Maps API with Carto.js, not with the CARTO Editor.

    background-image-comp-op keyword

    Description Sets the compositing operation used to blend the image into the background.
    Sample CartoCSS Code background-image-comp-op keyword
    Default Value src-over, the background image is placed on top of any existing background-image.
    Available Values clear src dst src-over dst-over src-in dst-in src-out dst-out src-atop dst-atop xor plus minus multiply screen overlay darken lighten color-dodge color-burn hard-light soft-light difference exclusion contrast invert invert-rgb grain-merge grain-extract hue saturation color value

    Note: The background-image-comp-op CartoCSS property is only supported when using the Maps API with Carto.js, not with the CARTO Editor.

    background-image-opacity float

    Description Sets the opacity of the image.
    Sample CartoCSS Code background-image-opacity: 1;
    Default Value 1, indicates that the image opacity will not be changed when applied to the map background).
    Available Values See float.

    Note: The background-image-opacity-float CartoCSS property is only supported when using the Maps API with Carto.js, not with the CARTO Editor.

    buffer-size float

    Description Ensures that labels crossing tile boundaries are equally rendered in each tile.
    Sample CartoCSS Code buffer-size: float;
    Default Value 0, no buffer is applied by default.
    Available Values See float.

    Note: Enter any values in pixels and do not apply this property in combination with "avoid-edges".


    Polygon

    These CartoCSS properties can be applied to the fill and outline of a polygon layer.

    polygon-fill polygon-opacity polygon-gamma
    polygon-gamma-method polygon-clip polygon-simplify
    polygon-simplify-algorithm polygon-smooth polygon-geometry-transform
    polygon-comp-op    

    polygon-fill color

    Description The fill color assigned to a polygon.
    Sample CartoCSS Code polygon-fill: rgba(128, 128, 128, 1);
    Default Value Gray (as indicated with the rgb color=128, 128, 128) and fully opaque (as indicated with alpha=1).
    Available Values See color.

    polygon-opacity float

    Description The opacity of the polygon.
    Sample CartoCSS Code polygon-opacity: 1;
    Default Value 1, indicates that the default opacity as opaque.
    Available Values See float.

    polygon-gamma float

    Description The level of antialiasing (smoothness of oversampling) of polygon edges. A range of 0-5 represents the most antialiased to the least antialiased.
    Sample CartoCSS Code polygon-gamma: 1;
    Default Value 1, fully antialiased, where polygons do not appear jagged.
    Available Values 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

    Tip: If you notice that there are spaces between polygons on your map, enter anti-antialiased values, in increments closer to 0.

    polygon-gamma-method keyword

    Description An anti-grain geometry method that represents a 2D rendering library, specific to controlling the quality of antialiasing and used to calculate pixel gamma (pow(x,gamma), which produces slightly smoother line and polygon antialiasing than the 'linear' method.
    Sample CartoCSS Code polygon-gamma-method: power;
    Default Value power
    Available Values power linear none threshold multiply

    Tip: Mapnik uses this method in combination with the 'gamma' value (which defaults to 1). These methods are documented in the the AGG GitHub source.

    polygon-clip boolean

    Description By default, geometries are clipped to map bounds. You can disable polygon clips to avoid rendering artifacts on a map if are having performance issues.
    Sample CartoCSS Code polygon-clip: true;
    Default Value true, geometry is clipped to map bounds before rendering.
    Available Values See boolean.

    polygon-simplify float

    Description Simplifies geometries by a given tolerance value.
    Sample CartoCSS Code polygon-simplify: 0;
    Default Value 0, geometry is not simplified.
    Available Values See float.

    Note: The polygon-simplify-float CartoCSS property is only supported when using the Maps API with carto.js, not with the CARTO Editor.

    polygon-simplify-algorithm keyword

    Description Simplifies geometries by a given algorithm value.
    Sample CartoCSS Code polygon-simplify-algorithm: radial-distance;
    Default Value radial-distance, geometry is simplified using the radial distance algorithm.
    Available Values radial-distance zhao-saalfeld visvalingam-whyatt

    polygon-smooth float

    Description Smooths out geometry angles.
    Sample CartoCSS Code polygon-smooth: 0;
    Default Value 0, no smoothing is applied.
    Available Values 0, 1

    Note: 0 indicates no smoothing is applied. 1 indicates that it is fully smoothed. Values greater than 1 produce wild, looping geometries. It is suggested to use a range between 0-1 for this value.

    polygon-geometry-transform functions

    Description Applies transformation functions to the geometry.
    Sample CartoCSS Code polygon-geometry-transform: none;
    Default Value none, geometry is not transformed.
    Available Values See functions.

    polygon-comp-op keyword

    Description The composite operation that defines how the symbolizer behaves relative to layers atop or below it.
    Sample CartoCSS Code polygon-comp-op: src-over;
    Default Value src-over, adds the current symbolizer on top of other symbolizers.
    Available Values clear src dst src-over dst-over src-in dst-in src-out dst-out src-atop dst-atop xor plus minus multiply screen overlay darken lighten color-dodge color-burn hard-light soft-light difference exclusion contrast invert invert-rgb grain-merge grain-extract hue saturation color value

    Line

    These CartoCSS properties can be applied to both line and polygon layers.

    line-color line-width line-opacity
    line-join line-cap line-gamma
    line-gamma-method line-dasharray line-dash-offset
    line-miterlimit line-clip line-simplify
    line-simplify-algorithm line-smooth line-offset
    line-rasterizer line-geometry-transform line-comp-op

    line-color color

    Description The color of the drawn line.
    Sample CartoCSS Code line-color: rgba(0,0,0,1);
    Default Value Black (as indicated with the rgb color=0, 0, 0) and fully opaque (as indicated with alpha=1).
    Available Values See color.

    line-width float

    Description The width of a line, in pixels.
    Sample CartoCSS Code line-width: 1;
    Default Value 1 pixel.
    Available Values See float.

    line-opacity float

    Description The opacity of a line.
    Sample CartoCSS Code line-opacity: 1;
    Default Value 1, the line is opaque.
    Available Values See float.

    line-join keyword

    Description The behavior of lines when joined on a map.
    Sample CartoCSS Code line-join: miter;
    Default Value miter, joins the edges at the corners.
    Available Values miter round bevel

    line-cap keyword

    Description The display of line endings.
    Sample CartoCSS Code line-cap: butt;
    Default Value butt, the ends of lines are squared off at the endpoints.
    Available Values butt round square

    line-gamma float

    Description The level of antialiasing (smoothness of oversampling) of a stroke line.
    Sample CartoCSS Code line-gamma: 1;
    Default Value 1, is fully antialiased.
    Available Values 0-1. See float.

    line-gamma-method keyword

    Description An anti-grain geometry method that represents a 2D rendering library, specific to controlling the quality of antialiasing and used to calculate pixel gamma (pow(x,gamma), which produces slightly smoother line and polygon antialiasing than the 'linear' method.
    Sample CartoCSS Code line-gamma-method: power;
    Default Value power
    Available Values power linear none threshold multiply

    Tip: Mapnik uses this method in combination with the 'gamma' value (which defaults to 1). These methods are documented in the the AGG GitHub source.

    line-dasharray numbers

    Description A pair of length values [a,b], where (a) is the dash length and (b) is the gap length. You can enter more than two values for more complex patterns.
    Sample CartoCSS Code line-dasharray: none;
    Default Value none, a solid line appears.
    Available Values See numbers.
    Related Example See How to create dotted lines.

    line-dash-offset numbers

    Description Sets the line dash pattern offset (pixel on, pixel off, pixel on, etc.) to create an animation display for the line.
    Sample CartoCSS Code line-dash-offset: none;
    Default Value none, a solid line appears.
    Available Values See numbers.

    Note: This is a valid parameter for SVG but is currently not supported for rendering. For example, a value of 0 indicates that there is no line, a value of 1 displays a line. A line-dash-offset value of 0 1 0 1 0 1 displays the line offset pattern. You can change the value by one pixel 1 0 1 0 1 0 to change the offset of the line.

    line-miterlimit float

    Description The limit on the ratio of the miter length to the stroke-width. This is used to automatically convert miter joins to bevel joins for sharp angles, to avoid the miter extending beyond the thickness of the stroking path. Typically, this property does not need to be set. However, if you have jaggy artifacts during rendering, defining a larger value for this property helps.
    Sample CartoCSS Code line-miterlimit: 4;
    Default Value 4, auto-convert miters to bevel line joins when theta is less than 29 degrees as per the SVG definitions: 'miterLength / stroke-width = 1 / sin ( theta / 2 )')
    Available Values See float.

    Note: Define values as per SVG transformation definitions- which are values separated by whitespace and/or commas, from right to left.

    line-clip boolean

    Description By default, geometries are clipped to map bounds. You can disable line clips to avoid rendering artifacts on a map if are having performance issues.
    Sample CartoCSS Code line-clip: true;
    Default Value true, geometry is clipped to map bounds before rendering.
    Available Values See boolean.

    line-simplify float

    Description Simplifies geometries by a given tolerance value.
    Sample CartoCSS Code line-simplify: 0;
    Default Value 0, geometry is not simplified.
    Available Values See float.

    Note: The line-simplify-float CartoCSS property is only supported when using the Maps API with carto.js, not with the CARTO Editor.

    line-simplify-algorithm keyword

    Description Simplifies geometries by a given algorithm value.
    Sample CartoCSS Code line-simplify-algorithm: radial-distance;
    Default Value radial-distance, geometry is simplified using the radial distance algorithm.
    Available Values radial-distance zhao-saalfeld visvalingam-whyatt

    Note: The line-simplify-algorithm-keyword CartoCSS property is only supported when using the Maps API with [Carto.js(/docs/carto-engine/carto-js/), not with the CARTO Editor.

    line-smooth float

    Description Smooths out geometry angles.
    Sample CartoCSS Code line-smooth: 0;
    Default Value 0, no smoothing is applied.
    Available Values 0 1

    Note: 0 indicates no smoothing is applied. 1 indicates that it is fully smoothed. Values greater than 1 produce wild, looping geometries. It is suggested to use a range between 0-1 for this value.

    line-offset float

    Description Offsets a line parallel to its actual path, defined by a number in pixels. Positive values move the line left, negative values move it right (relative to the directionality of the line).
    Sample CartoCSS Code line-offset: 0;
    Default Value 0, no offset is applied.
    Available Values See float.

    line-rasterizer keyword

    Description Exposes an alternate AGG (Anti-Grain Geometry) rendering method that sacrifices some accuracy for speed.
    Sample CartoCSS Code line-rasterizer: full;
    Default Value full
    Available Values full fast

    line-geometry-transform functions

    Description Applies transformation functions to the geometry.
    Sample CartoCSS Code line-geometry-transform: none;
    Default Value none, geometry is not transformed.
    Available Values See functions.

    line-comp-op keyword

    Description The composite operation that defines how the symbolizer behaves relative to layers atop or below it.
    Sample CartoCSS Code line-comp-op: src-over;
    Default Value src-over, adds the current symbolizer on top of other symbolizers.
    Available Values clear src dst src-over dst-over src-in dst-in src-out dst-out src-atop dst-atop xor plus minus multiply screen overlay darken lighten color-dodge color-burn hard-light soft-light difference exclusion contrast invert invert-rgb grain-merge grain-extract hue saturation color value

    Markers

    These CartoCSS properties can be applied to point, line and polygon layers.

    marker-file marker-opacity marker-fill-opacity
    marker-line-color marker-line-width marker-line-opacity
    marker-placement marker-multi-policy marker-type
    marker-width marker-height marker-fill
    marker-allow-overlap marker-ignore-placement marker-spacing
    marker-max-error marker-transform marker-clip
    marker-smooth marker-geometry-transform marker-comp-op

    marker-file uri

    Description Displays an SVG file at each marker placement. If no file is specified, an ellipse is shown for the marker.
    Sample CartoCSS Code marker-file: url(http://www.clipartbest.com/cliparts/nTX/AGX/nTXAGXyTB.svg);
    Default Value none, an ellipse appears if the width does not equal the height.

    Note: If the height is equal to the width, a circle appears.
    Available Values See uri.

    marker-opacity float

    Description Sets the overall opacity of the marker, overriding any opacity and fill-opacity settings.
    Sample CartoCSS Code marker-opacity: 1;
    Default Value 1, the opacity and fill-opacity are applied.
    Available Values See float.

    marker-fill-opacity float

    Description The fill opacity of the marker.
    Sample CartoCSS Code marker-fill-opacity: 1;
    Default Value 1, the fill-opacity is opaque.

    Tip: If you want to apply opacity to the entire symbol, apply the marker-opacity property. Similarly, for a line, apply the marker-line-opacity property.
    Available Values See float.

    marker-line-color color

    Description The color of the stroke around a marker shape.
    Sample CartoCSS Code marker-line-color: black;
    Default Value black
    Available Values See color.

    marker-line-width float

    Description The width of the line around the marker, in pixels, centered on the edge.
    Sample CartoCSS Code marker-line-width: 2;
    Default Value A defined pixel
    Available Values See float.
    Related Example The marker-line-width is positioned on the boundary, so high values can cover the area itself. For example, if you have a marker with a width (diameter) of 4, and add a line width of 3, 1.5 pixels of the line width appears on the inside of the edge, and covers the entire marker.

    marker-line-opacity float

    Description The opacity of the marker line.
    Sample CartoCSS Code marker-line-opacity: 1;
    Default Value 1, the line is opaque.
    Available Values See float.

    marker-placement keyword

    Description Places markers on a point, in the center of a polygon, or on a line.
    Sample CartoCSS Code marker-placement: point;
    Default Value point, places markers at the center point (centroid) of the geometry.
    Available Values point line interior

    Note: If placing markers on a line, markers appear multiple times along a line. You can apply 'interior' to ensure correct placement on a line. Points placed on polygons are forced to be inside the polygon interior.

    Tip: See the note for how this property interacts with the Marker-multi-policy.

    marker-multi-policy keyword

    Description Enables you to control the rendering behavior for multi-geometries.
    Sample CartoCSS Code marker-multi-policy: each;
    Default Value each, all geometries display a marker.
    Available Values each whole largest
      whole - indicates that the aggregate centroid between all geometries is applied
      largest - indicates that only the largest (by bounding box areas) renders a marker (similar to default text labeling behavior)

    Note: If the marker-placement property is also applied and the value is either point or interior, a marker is rendered for each placement. If you specified line as the marker-placement value, this marker-multi-policy property is not applied and all geometries display a marker.

    marker-type keyword

    Description Sets the default marker-type. If a SVG file is not defined with the marker-file property, an arrow, ellipse, or circle (if height is equal to width) is rendered.
    Sample CartoCSS Code marker-type: ellipse;
    Default Value ellipse
    Available Values arrow ellipse

    Note: If the height is equal to the width, a circle appears.

    marker-width expression

    Description If a default marker-type property is defined, this property indicates the width of the marker-type.
    Sample CartoCSS Code marker-width: 10.0;
    Default Value 10
    Available Values See expression.

    marker-height expression

    Description If a default marker-type property is defined, this property indicates the height of the marker-type.
    Sample CartoCSS Code marker-height: 10.0;
    Default Value 10
    Available Values See expression

    marker-fill color

    Description The fill color of the marker.
    Sample CartoCSS Code marker-fill: blue;
    Default Value blue
    Available Values See color.

    marker-allow-overlap boolean

    Description Shows or hides overlapping markers on a map.
    Sample CartoCSS Code marker-allow-overlap: false;
    Default Value false, does not allow markers to overlap. Overlapping markers are not rendered if there are conflicts. Overlapping markers may appear when you zoom in, if there is room for markers to display.
    Available Values See boolean.

    marker-ignore-placement boolean

    Description Prevents other placement properties from being rendered.
    Sample CartoCSS Code marker-ignore-placement: false;
    Default Value false, does not store placement geometries in the collision detector cache of the bbox (bounding box)
    Available Values See boolean.

    marker-spacing float

    Description The space between repeated markers, in pixels. If spacing is less than the marker size, or larger than the line segment length, no markers are displayed.
    Sample CartoCSS Code marker-spacing: 100;
    Default Value 100
    Available Values See float.

    marker-max-error float

    Description The maximum difference between the actual marker placement and the marker-spacing parameter.
    Sample CartoCSS Code marker-max-error: 0.2;
    Default Value 0.2
    Available Values See float.

    Note: Setting a high value can resolve placement conflicts with other symbolizers and improve rendering performance.

    marker-transform functions

    Description Defines SVG transformation functions to scale how markers appear.
    Sample CartoCSS Code marker-transform: scale (2,2);
    Default Value no transformation applied by default.
    Available Values See functions.

    Note: Define values as per SVG transformation definitions- which are values separated by whitespace and/or commas, from right to left.

    marker-clip boolean

    Description By default, geometries are clipped to map bounds. You can disable line clips to avoid rendering artifacts on a map if are having performance issues.
    Sample CartoCSS Code marker-clip: true;
    Default Value true, geometry is clipped to map bounds before rendering.
    Available Values See boolean.

    marker-smooth float

    Description Smooths out geometry angles.
    Sample CartoCSS Code marker-smooth: float;
    Default Value 0, no smoothing is applied.
    Available Values See float.

    Note: 0 indicates no smoothing is applied. 1 indicates that it is fully smoothed. Values greater than 1 produce wild, looping geometries. It is suggested to use a range between 0-1 for this value.

    marker-geometry-transform functions

    Description Applies transformation functions to the geometry.
    Sample CartoCSS Code marker-geometry-transform: none;
    Default Value none, geometry is not transformed.
    Available Values See functions.

    marker-comp-op keyword

    Description The composite operation that defines how the symbolizer behaves relative to layers atop or below it.
    Sample CartoCSS Code marker-comp-op: src-over;
    Default Value src-over, adds the current symbolizer on top of other symbolizers.
    Available Values clear src dst src-over dst-over src-in dst-in src-out dst-out src-atop dst-atop xor plus minus multiply screen overlay darken lighten color-dodge color-burn hard-light soft-light difference exclusion contrast invert invert-rgb grain-merge grain-extract hue saturation color value

    Shield

    If you are displaying road shields on a map (for example, highway markers), these CartoCSS properties define the shield styling.

    shield-file shield-name shield-face-name
    shield-unlock-image shield-size shield-fill
    shield-placement shield-avoid-edges shield-allow-overlap
    shield-min-distance shield-spacing shield-min-padding
    shield-wrap-width shield-wrap-before shield-wrap-character
    shield-halo-fill shield-halo-radius shield-character-spacing
    shield-line-spacing shield-text-dx shield-text-dy
    shield-dx shield-dy shield-opacity
    shield-text-opacity shield-horizontal-alignment shield-vertical-alignment
    shield-placement-type shield-placements shield-text-transform
    shield-justify-alignment shield-transform shield-clip
    shield-comp-op    

    shield-file uri

    Description The shield-file property is required before defining any shield styles. Define an image file to render the shield image.
    Sample CartoCSS Code shield-file: url(https://s3.amazonaws.com/com.cartodb.users-assets.production/production/username/assets/20150924175307shield2.png);
    Default Value none
    Available Values See uri.

    shield-name expression

    Description The text name of a shield symbol on a map. Appears on top of the shield-file image by default.
    Sample CartoCSS Code shield-name: '[name_example]';
    Default Value undefined
    Available Values See expression. The expression value is a data column specified by using brackets, as shown in the sample code above.

    Note: See shield-unlock-image to change how the shield-text appears relative to this shield-file image.

    shield-face-name string

    Description The font name and style for the shield-name property.
    Sample CartoCSS Code shield-face-name: ‘Open Sans Bold’;
    Default Value undefined
    Available Values See string.

    shield-unlock-image boolean

    Description Sets the text alignment of the shield-name relative to the shield-file.
    Sample CartoCSS Code shield-unlock-image: false;
    Default Value false, the center of the shield-file image is the anchor for text positioning.
    Available Values See boolean.

    Note: If you are positioning text next to (as opposed to on top of a shield-file image), set the value to true.

    shield-size float

    Description The size of the text for the shield-name property, in pixels.
    Sample CartoCSS Code shield-size: 12;
    Default Value undefined
    Available Values See float.

    shield-fill color

    Description The fill color of the shield text.
    Sample CartoCSS Code shield-fill: #e16363;
    Default Value undefined
    Available Values See color.

    shield-placement keyword

    Description Places shields on top of points, along multiple line places, on the vertexes of polygons, or in the interior inside a polygon.
    Sample CartoCSS Code shield-placement: point;
    Default Value point, the shield appears on the top of map points.
    Available Values point line vertex interior

    shield-avoid-edges boolean

    Description Prevents shields from intersecting with tile boundaries.
    Sample CartoCSS Code shield-avoid-edges: false;
    Default Value false, shields do not intersect.
    Available Values See boolean.

    shield-allow-overlap boolean

    Description Controls how shields appear when overlapping with other elements on the map.
    Sample CartoCSS Code shield-allow-overlap: false;
    Default Value false, shields do not overlap with other map elements. Overlapping shields are hidden.
    Available Values See boolean.

    shield-min-distance float

    Description The minimum distance between the next shield symbol. (This does not apply to multiple shields at one point).
    Sample CartoCSS Code shield-min-distance: 0;
    Default Value 0
    Available Values See float.

    shield-spacing float

    Description The space between repeated shields, in pixels, on a line.
    Sample CartoCSS Code shield-spacing: 0;
    Default Value 0
    Available Values See float.

    shield-min-padding float

    Description The minimum distance, in pixels, that a shield is placed from the edge of a metatile (the tile/buffer space relationship).
    Sample CartoCSS Code shield-min-padding: 0;
    Default Value 0
    Available Values See float.

    shield-wrap-width unsigned

    Description The length of pixels that appears before the shield-name text wraps.
    Sample CartoCSS Code shield-wrap-width: 0;
    Default Value 0
    Available Values Unsigned integer

    shield-wrap-before boolean

    Description Determines how the wrap-text behaves relative to the wrap-width.
    Sample CartoCSS Code shield-wrap-before: false;
    Default Value false, wrapped text appears longer than the wrap-width.
    Available Values See boolean.

    Note: If value is true, the text wraps before wrap-width is reached.

    shield-wrap-character string

    Description Enables you to wrap text with a character, rather than with a space. This is especially useful for long text names.
    Sample CartoCSS Code shield-wrap-character: '_';
    Default Value undefined
    Available Values See string.

    shield-halo-fill color

    Description Specifies the color of the halo around the text.
    Sample CartoCSS Code shield-halo-fill: #FFFFFF;
    Default Value #FFFFFF, the halo color is white by default
    Available Values See color.

    shield-halo-radius float

    Description The radius of the halo, in pixels.
    Sample CartoCSS Code shield-halo-radius: 0;
    Default Value 0, no halo is applied.
    Available Values See float.

    shield-character-spacing unsigned

    Description The horizontal space, in pixels, between text characters.
    Sample CartoCSS Code shield-character-spacing: unsigned;
    Default Value 0
    Available Values Unsigned integer.

    Note: This property is not supported for line placement.

    shield-line-spacing unsigned

    Description The vertical spacing, in pixels, between two lines of multiline labels.
    Sample CartoCSS Code shield-line-spacing: none
    Default Value undefined
    Available Values Unsigned integer

    shield-text-dx float

    Description Places the shield text within a fixed range of pixels, +/- along the X axis. A positive value shifts the text to the right.
    Sample CartoCSS Code shield-text-dx: 0;
    Default Value 0
    Available Values See float.

    shield-text-dy float

    Description Places the shield text within a fixed range of pixels, +/- along the Y axis. A positive value shifts the text down.
    Sample CartoCSS Code shield-text-dy: 0;
    Default Value 0
    Available Values See float.

    shield-dx float

    Description Places the shield within in a fixed range of pixels, +/- along the X axis. A positive value shifts the shield to the right.
    Sample CartoCSS Code shield-dx: 150;
    Default Value 0
    Available Values See float.

    shield-dy float

    Description Places the shield within a fixed range of pixels, +/- along the Y axis. A positive value shifts the shield down.
    Sample CartoCSS Code shield-dy: 0;
    Default Value 0
    Available Values See float.

    shield-opacity float

    Description Sets the opacity of the shield-file image.
    Sample CartoCSS Code shield-opacity: 1;
    Default Value 1
    Available Values See float.

    shield-text-opacity float

    Description The opacity of the text placed on top of the shield.
    Sample CartoCSS Code shield-text-opacity: 1;
    Default Value 1
    Available Values See float.

    shield-horizontal-alignment keyword

    Description The horizontal alignment of the shield from its center point.
    Sample CartoCSS Code shield-horizontal-alignment auto;
    Default Value auto
    Available Values left middle right auto

    shield-vertical-alignment keyword

    Description The vertical alignment of the shield from its center point.
    Sample CartoCSS Code shield-vertical-alignment: middle;'
    Default Value middle
    Available Values top middle bottom auto

    shield-placement-type keyword

    Description Enables you to reposition and resize the shield to avoid overlaps.
    Sample CartoCSS Code shield-placement-type: dummy;
    Default Value dummy, turns off and disables this feature.
    Available Values dummy simple

    Note: The simple value is the shield placement string used for basic algorithms.

    shield-placements string

    Description If shield-placement-type is set to simple, you can use this property to set the position of the shield placement.
    Sample CartoCSS Code shield-placements: E,NE,SE,W,NW,SW;
    Default Value none
    Available Values See string.

    shield-text-transform keyword

    Description Identifies the text case of the shield-name.
    Sample CartoCSS Code shield-text-transform: none;
    Default Value none
    Available Values none uppercase lowercase capitalize

    shield-justify-alignment keyword

    Description Defines how the shield-name text is aligned.
    Sample CartoCSS Code shield-justify-alignment: auto;
    Default Value auto
    Available Values left center right auto

    shield-transform functions

    Description Defines SVG transformation functions to scale how shields appear.
    Sample CartoCSS Code shield-transform: none;
    Default Value none
    Available Values See functions.

    Note: Define values as per SVG transformation definitions- which are values separated by whitespace and/or commas, from right to left.

    shield-clip boolean

    Description By default, geometries are clipped to map bounds. You can disable clips to avoid rendering artifacts on a map if are having performance issues.
    Sample CartoCSS Code shield-clip: true;
    Default Value true, geometry is clipped to map bounds before rendering.
    Available Values See boolean.

    shield-comp-op keyword

    Description The composite operation that defines how the symbolizer behaves relative to layers atop or below it.
    Sample CartoCSS Code shield-comp-op: src-over;
    Default Value src-over, adds the current symbolizer on top of other symbolizers.
    Available Values clear src dst src-over dst-over src-in dst-in src-out dst-out src-atop dst-atop xor plus minus multiply screen overlay darken lighten color-dodge color-burn hard-light soft-light difference exclusion contrast invert invert-rgb grain-merge grain-extract hue saturation color value

    Line-Pattern

    These CartoCSS pattern properties can be applied to both line and polygon elements on a map.

    line-pattern-file line-pattern-clip line-pattern-simplify
    line-pattern-simplify-algorithm line-pattern-smooth line-pattern-offset
    line-pattern-geometry-transform line-pattern-comp-op  

    line-pattern-file uri

    Description A defined image file that renders the pattern of a line. The image repeats along the line.
    Sample CartoCSS Code line-pattern-file: url(https://s3.amazonaws.com/com.cartodb.users-assets.production/production/username/assets/20151005164516line-2.png);
    Default Value none
    Available Values See uri.

    line-pattern-clip boolean

    Description By default, geometries are clipped to map bounds. You can disable line pattern clips to avoid rendering artifacts on a map if are having performance issues.
    Sample CartoCSS Code line-pattern-clip: true;
    Default Value true, geometry is clipped to map bounds before rendering.
    Available Values See boolean.

    line-pattern-simplify float

    Description Simplifies geometries by a given tolerance value.
    Sample CartoCSS Code line-pattern-simplify: 0;
    Default Value 0, geometry is not simplified.
    Available Values See float.

    line-pattern-simplify-algorithm keyword

    Description Simplifies geometries by a given algorithm value.
    Sample CartoCSS Code line-pattern-simplify-algorithm: radial-distance;
    Default Value radial-distance, geometry is simplified using the radial distance algorithm.
    Available Values radial-distance zhao-saalfeld visvalingam-whyatt

    line-pattern-smooth float

    Description Smooths out geometry angles for line patterns.
    Sample CartoCSS Code line-pattern-smooth: 0;
    Default Value 0, no smoothing is applied.
    Available Values 0 1

    Note: 0 indicates no smoothing is applied. 1 indicates that it is fully smoothed. Values greater than 1 produce wild, looping geometries. It is suggested to use a range between 0-1 for this value.

    line-pattern-offset float

    Description Offsets a line pattern parallel to its actual path, defined by a number in pixels. Positive values move the line pattern left, negative values move it right (relative to the directionality of the line pattern).
    Sample CartoCSS Code line-pattern-offset: 0;
    Default Value 0, no offset is applied.
    Available Values See float.

    line-pattern-geometry-transform functions

    Description Applies transformation functions to the geometry.
    Sample CartoCSS Code line-pattern-geometry-transform: none;
    Default Value none, geometry is not transformed.
    Available Values See functions.

    line-pattern-comp-op keyword

    Description The composite operation that defines how the symbolizer behaves relative to layers atop or below it.
    Sample CartoCSS Code line-pattern-comp-op: src-over;
    Default Value src-over, adds the current symbolizer on top of other symbolizers.
    Available Values clear src dst src-over dst-over src-in dst-in src-out dst-out src-atop dst-atop xor plus minus multiply screen overlay darken lighten color-dodge color-burn hard-light soft-light difference exclusion contrast invert invert-rgb grain-merge grain-extract hue saturation color value

    Polygon-Pattern

    These CartoCSS pattern properties can be applied to both line and polygon elements on a map.

    polygon-pattern-file polygon-pattern-alignment polygon-pattern-gamma
    polygon-pattern-opacity polygon-pattern-clip polygon-pattern-simplify
    polygon-pattern-simplify-algorithm polygon-pattern-smooth polygon-pattern-geometry-transform
    polygon-pattern-comp-op    

    polygon-pattern-file uri

    Description A defined image file that renders the pattern fill within a polygon.
    Sample CartoCSS Code polygon-pattern-file: url(http://com.cartodb.users-assets.production.s3.amazonaws.com/patterns/diagonal_1px_med.png);
    Default Value none
    Available Values See uri.

    polygon-pattern-alignment keyword

    Description Specifies if the polygon-pattern-fill aligns with the map layer.
    Sample CartoCSS Code polygon-pattern-alignment: local;
    Default Value local
    Available Values local global

    polygon-pattern-gamma float

    Description The level of antialiasing (smoothness of oversampling) of polygon pattern edges. A range of 0-5 represents the most antialiased to the least antialiased.
    Sample CartoCSS Code polygon-pattern-gamma: 1;
    Default Value 1, is fully antialiased.
    Available Values 0 1 2 3 4 5

    polygon-pattern-opacity float

    Description The opacity level of the polygon-pattern image.
    Sample CartoCSS Code polygon-pattern-opacity: 1;
    Default Value 1, indicates that the default opacity as opaque.
    Available Values See float.

    polygon-pattern-clip boolean

    Description By default, geometries are clipped to map bounds. You can disable polygon-pattern-clips to avoid rendering artifacts on a map if are having performance issues.
    Sample CartoCSS Code polygon-pattern-clip: true;
    Default Value true, geometry is clipped to map bounds before rendering.
    Available Values See boolean.

    polygon-pattern-simplify float

    Description Simplifies geometries by a given tolerance value.
    Sample CartoCSS Code polygon-pattern-simplify: 0;
    Default Value 0, geometry is not simplified.
    Available Values See float.

    polygon-pattern-simplify-algorithm keyword

    Description Simplifies geometries by a given algorithm value.
    Sample CartoCSS Code polygon-pattern-simplify-algorithm: radial-distance;
    Default Value radial-distance, geometry is simplified using the radial distance algorithm.
    Available Values radial-distance zhao-saalfeld visvalingam-whyatt

    polygon-pattern-smooth float

    Description Smooths out geometry angles.
    Sample CartoCSS Code polygon-pattern-smooth: 0;
    Default Value 0, no smoothing is applied.
    Available Values 0 1

    Note: 0 indicates no smoothing is applied. 1 indicates that it is fully smoothed. Values greater than 1 produce wild, looping geometries. It is suggested to use a range between 0-1 for this value.

    polygon-pattern-geometry-transform functions

    Description Applies transformation functions to the geometry.
    Sample CartoCSS Code polygon-pattern-geometry-transform: none;
    Default Value none, geometry is not transformed.
    Available Values See functions.

    polygon-pattern-comp-op keyword

    Description The composite operation that defines how the symbolizer behaves relative to layers atop or below it.
    Sample CartoCSS Code polygon-pattern-comp-op: src-over;
    Default Value src-over, adds the current symbolizer on top of other symbolizers.
    Available Values clear src dst src-over dst-over src-in dst-in src-out dst-out src-atop dst-atop xor plus minus multiply screen overlay darken lighten color-dodge color-burn hard-light soft-light difference exclusion contrast invert invert-rgb grain-merge grain-extract hue saturation color value

    Raster

    These CartoCSS properties can be applied to raster (grid) data layers on a map.

    raster-opacity raster-filter-factor raster-scaling
    raster-mesh-size raster-comp-op raster-colorizer-default-mode
    raster-colorizer-default-color raster-colorizer-epsilon raster-colorizer-stops

    Note: Raster CartoCSS symbolizer properties are only supported when using the Maps API with Carto.js, not with the CARTO Editor.

    raster-opacity float

    Description The opacity of the raster symbolizer on top of other symbolizers.
    Sample CartoCSS Code raster-opacity: 1;
    Default Value 1, the raster is opaque.
    Available Values See float.

    raster-filter-factor float

    Description Sets the filter factor used for rendering the datasource of the raster. Used by the Raster or GDAL datasources to pre-downscale images using overviews.
    Sample CartoCSS Code raster-filter-factor: -1;
    Default Value -1, allows the datasource to determine the appropriate downscaling option.
    Available Values See float.

    Note: Higher numbers can improve the output of the scaled image, but may reduce the speed of downscaling.

    raster-scaling keyword

    Description The algorithm applied to scale the resolution of the raster layer.
    Sample CartoCSS Code raster-scaling: near;
    Default Value near
    Available Values near fast bilinear bilinear8 bicubic spline16 spline36 hanning hamming hermite kaiser quadric catrom gaussian bessel mitchell sinc lanczos blackman

    Note: While the lanczos value may render the best quality, the bilinear value actually produces the best compromise between speed and accuracy.

    raster-mesh-size unsigned

    Description Specifies a reduced resolution mesh for raster reprojection. The total image size is divided by the mesh-size to determine the quality of the mesh.
    Sample CartoCSS Code raster-mesh-size: 16;
    Default Value 16, the reprojected mesh is 1/16 of the resolution of the source image.
    Available Values Unsigned integer

    Note: While values defined greater than the default (16) may produce faster reprojection, the image may be distorted.

    raster-comp-op keyword

    Description The composite operation that defines how the symbolizer behaves relative to layers atop or below it.
    Sample CartoCSS Code raster-comp-op: src-over;
    Default Value src-over, adds the current symbolizer on top of other symbolizers.
    Available Values clear src dst src-over dst-over src-in dst-in src-out dst-out src-atop dst-atop xor plus minus multiply screen overlay darken lighten color-dodge color-burn hard-light soft-light difference exclusion contrast invert invert-rgb grain-merge grain-extract hue saturation color value

    raster-colorizer-default-mode keyword

    Description Sets the default coloring mode of the raster.
    Sample CartoCSS Code raster-colorizer-default-mode:linear;
    Default Value undefined
    Available Values discrete linear exact

    raster-colorizer-default-color color

    Description Sets the color that is applied to all values outside of the range of the raster-colorizer-stop values.
    Sample CartoCSS Code raster-colorizer-default-color: transparent;
    Default Value undefined
    Available Values See color.

    raster-colorizer-epsilon float

    Description Assigns an epsilon value to the raster colorizer. An epsilon value is when the exact input value matches the stop value to generate the translated color.
    Sample CartoCSS Code raster-colorizer-epsilon:0.41;
    Default Value undefined
    Available Values See float.

    Note: Epsilon values must be listed in ascending order and contain a minimum value and associated color.

    Additionally, you can also include the color-mode as a third argument. For example: stop(100,#fff, exact)

    raster-colorizer-stops tags

    Description Assigns raster data values to colors. Stops must be listed in ascending order, and contain a minimum value, and the associated color.
    Sample CartoCSS Code raster-colorizer-stops:',

    Tip: See the related example for a complete CartoCSS syntax code example.
    Default Value undefined
    Available Values See float.
    Related Example CARTO blocks - raster demos

    Point

    These CartoCSS properties can be applied to style points on a map.

    point-file point-allow-overlap point-ignore-placement
    point-opacity point-placement point-transform
    point-comp-op    

    point-file uri

    Description A defined image path that renders how a point appears.
    Sample CartoCSS Code point-file: url(http://www.image.com/image.png);
    Default Value none
    Available Values See uri.

    point-allow-overlap boolean

    Description Shows or hides overlapping points on a map.
    Sample CartoCSS Code point-allow-overlap: false;
    Default Value false, does not allow points to overlap. Overlapping points are hidden
    Available Values See boolean.

    point-ignore-placement boolean

    Description Prevents other placement properties from being rendered.
    Sample CartoCSS Code point-ignore-placement: false;
    Default Value false, does not store placement geometries in the collision detector cache of the bbox (bounding box).
    Available Values See boolean.

    point-opacity float

    Description Sets the overall opacity of the point.
    Sample CartoCSS Code point-opacity: 1;
    Default Value 1, the point is fully opaque.
    Available Values 0 1

    point-placement keyword

    Description Determines how points are placed.
    Sample CartoCSS Code point-placement: centroid;
    Default Value centroid
    Available Values centroid interior

    Note: Centroid calculates the geometric center of a polygon (which can outside of the polygon). Interior is always placed inside of a polygon.

    point-transform functions

    Description Defines SVG transformation functions to scale how points appear.
    Sample CartoCSS Code point-transform: none;
    Default Value none, geometry is not transformed.
    Available Values See functions.

    Note: Define values as per SVG transformation definitions- which are values separated by whitespace and/or commas, from right to left.

    point-comp-op `keyword

    Description The composite operation that defines how the symbolizer behaves relative to layers atop or below it.
    Sample CartoCSS Code point-comp-op: src-over;
    Default Value src-over, adds the current symbolizer on top of other symbolizers.
    Available Values clear src dst src-over dst-over src-in dst-in src-out dst-out src-atop dst-atop xor plus minus multiply screen overlay darken lighten color-dodge color-burn hard-light soft-light difference exclusion contrast invert invert-rgb grain-merge grain-extract hue saturation color value

    Text

    Defines the text label properties on the map.

    text-name text-face-name text-size
    text-ratio text-wrap-width text-wrap-before
    text-wrap-character text-spacing text-character-spacing
    text-line-spacing text-label-position-tolerance text-max-char-angle-delta
    text-fill text-opacity text-halo-fill
    text-halo-radius text-halo-rasterizer text-dx
    text-dy text-vertical-alignment text-avoid-edges
    text-min-distance text-min-padding text-min-path-length
    text-allow-overlap text-orientation text-placement
    text-placement-type text-placements text-transform
    text-horizontal-alignment text-align text-clip
    text-comp-op    

    text-name expression

    Description The name of the text label.
    Sample CartoCSS Code text-name: '[label_name_example]';
    Default Value undefined
    Available Values See expression.

    The expression value is a data column specified by using brackets, as shown in the sample code above.

    text-face-name string

    Note: A limited number of fonts can be applied directly through the CARTO wizard. For details, see a list of supported fonts. This CartoCSS property enables you to apply a larger range of fonts for your map label text.

    Description The font name and style for the text-name label.
    Sample CartoCSS Code text-face-name: ‘Open Sans Bold’;
    Default Value undefined
    Available Values See string.

    text-size float

    Description The text size of the text label, in pixels.
    Sample CartoCSS Code text-size: 10;
    Default Value 10
    Available Values See float.

    text-ratio unsigned

    Description Defines the amount of text that appears on successive lines after text wrapping.
    Sample CartoCSS Code text-ratio: 0;
    Default Value 0
    Available Values Unsigned integer

    text-wrap-width unsigned

    Description The length of pixels that appears before the text-name label wraps.
    Sample CartoCSS Code text-wrap-width: 0;
    Default Value 0
    Available Values Unsigned integer

    text-wrap-before boolean

    Description Determines how the wrap-text behaves relative to the wrap-width.
    Sample CartoCSS Code text-wrap-before: false;
    Default Value false, wrapped text appears longer than the wrap-width.
    Available Values See boolean.

    text-wrap-character string

    Description Enables you to wrap text with a character, rather than with a space. This is especially useful for long label names.
    Sample CartoCSS Code text-wrap-character: '_';
    Default Value none
    Available Values See string.

    text-spacing unsigned

    Description The space between repeated text lables, in pixels, on a line.
    Sample CartoCSS Code text-spacing: 0;
    Default Value undefined
    Available Values Unsigned integer

    text-character-spacing float

    Description The horizontal space, in pixels, between characters.
    Sample CartoCSS Code text-character-spacing: 0;
    Default Value 0
    Available Values See float.

    text-line-spacing unsigned

    Description The vertical spacing, in pixels, between two lines of multiline text labels.
    Sample CartoCSS Code text-line-spacing: 0;
    Default Value 0
    Available Values Unsigned integer

    text-label-position-tolerance unsigned

    Description Allows you to adjust the default placement of a text label on a line, in pixels.
    Sample CartoCSS Code text-label-position-tolerance: 0;
    Default Value 0
    Available Values Unsigned integer

    text-max-char-angle-delta float

    Description The maximum angle change allowed between adjacent characters in a label (as measured in degrees).
    Sample CartoCSS Code text-max-char-angle-delta: 22.5;
    Default Value 22.5
    Available Values See float.

    Note: Internally, the value is converted to the default value (22.5), by applying the following radian algorithm:

    22.5*math.PI/180.0

    The higher the value, the fewer labels are placed around sharp corners.

    text-fill color

    Description The color of the label text.
    Sample CartoCSS Code text-fill: #000000;
    Default Value #000000, black
    Available Values See color.

    text-opacity float

    Description The opacity of the text label.
    Sample CartoCSS Code text-opacity: 1;
    Default Value 1, fully opaque
    Available Values 0 1

    text-halo-fill color

    Description Specifies the color of the halo around the text label.
    Sample CartoCSS Code text-halo-fill: #FFFFFF;
    Default Value #FFFFFF, the halo color is white by default.
    Available Values See color.

    text-halo-radius float

    Description The radius of the halo, in pixels.
    Sample CartoCSS Code text-halo-radius: 0;
    Default Value 0, no halo is applied.
    Available Values See float.

    text-halo-rasterizer keyword

    Description Exposes an alternate AGG (Anti-Grain Geometry) rendering method that sacrifices some accuracy for speed.
    Sample CartoCSS Code text-halo-rasterizer: full;
    Default Value full
    Available Values full fast

    text-dx float

    Description Places the text label within a fixed range of pixels, +/- along the X axis. A positive value shifts the text to the right.
    Sample CartoCSS Code text-dx: 0;
    Default Value 0
    Available Values See float.

    text-dy float

    Description Places the text label within a fixed range of pixels, +/- along the Y axis. A positive value shifts the text down.
    Sample CartoCSS Code text-dy: 0;
    Default Value 0
    Available Values See float.

    text-vertical-alignment keyword

    Description The vertical alignment of the text label from its center point.
    Sample CartoCSS Code text-vertical-alignment: auto;
    Default Value auto
    Available Values top middle bottom auto

    Note: The default value is affected by the dy (text down) value. If the dy value>0, the vertical alignment value is bottom. If the dy value<0, the vertical alignment is top.

    text-avoid-edges boolean

    Description Prevents text labels from intersecting with tile boundaries.
    Sample CartoCSS Code text-avoid-edges: false;
    Default Value false, labels do not intersect.
    Available Values See boolean.

    text-min-distance float

    Description The minimum distance between the next text label.
    Sample CartoCSS Code text-min-distance: undefined;
    Default Value undefined
    Available Values See float.

    text-min-padding float

    Description The minimum distance, in pixels, that a text label is placed from the edge of a metatile (the tile/buffer space relationship).
    Sample CartoCSS Code text-min-padding: undefined;
    Default Value undefined
    Available Values See float.

    text-min-path-length float

    Description Enables you to place text labels on paths longer than the minimum length.
    Sample CartoCSS Code text-min-path-length: 0;
    Default Value 0, places text label on all paths.
    Available Values See float.

    text-allow-overlap boolean

    Description Shows or hides overlapping text labels on a map.
    Sample CartoCSS Code text-allow-overlap: false;
    Default Value false, does not allow text labels to overlap. Overlapping text labels are hidden.
    Available Values See boolean.

    text-orientation expression

    Description Enables you to change the orientation of the text label.
    Sample CartoCSS Code text-orientation: undefined;
    Default Value undefined
    Available Values See expression.

    text-placement keyword

    Description Places text labels on top of points, along multiple line places, on the vertexes of polygons, or in the interior inside a polygon.
    Sample CartoCSS Code text-placement: point;
    Default Value point, the text label appears on the top of map points.
    Available Values point line vertex interior

    text-placement-type keyword

    Description Enables you to reposition and resize the text label to avoid overlaps.
    Sample CartoCSS Code text-placement-type: dummy;
    Default Value dummy, turns off and disables this feature.
    Available Values dummy simple

    Note: The simple value is the text label placement string used for basic algorithms.

    text-placements string

    Description If text-placement-type is set to simple, you can use this property to adjust the placement of the text label.
    Sample CartoCSS Code text-placements: E,NE,SE,W,NW,SW;
    Default Value none
    Available Values See string.

    text-transform keyword

    Description Identifies the text case of the text label.
    Sample CartoCSS Code text-transform: none;
    Default Value none
    Available Values none uppercase lowercase capitalize

    text-horizontal-alignment keyword

    Description The horizontal alignment of the text label from its center point.
    Sample CartoCSS Code text-horizontal-alignment: auto;
    Default Value auto
    Available Values left middle right auto

    text-align keyword

    Description Defines how text labels are justified, relative to the text-placement-type property.
    Sample CartoCSS Code text-align: auto;
    Default Value auto, text is centered by default except when text-placement-type value is simple, then the text is justified automatically depending on where the text can fit text-placements.
    Available Values left right center auto

    text-clip boolean

    Description By default, geometries are clipped to map bounds. You can disable clips to avoid rendering artifacts on a map if are having performance issues.
    Sample CartoCSS Code text-clip: true
    Default Value true, geometry is clipped to map bounds before rendering.
    Available Values See boolean.

    text-comp-op keyword

    Description The composite operation that defines how the symbolizer behaves relative to layers atop or below it.
    Sample CartoCSS Code text-comp-op: src-over;
    Default Value src-over, adds the current symbolizer on top of other symbolizers.
    Available Values clear src dst src-over dst-over src-in dst-in src-out dst-out src-atop dst-atop xor plus minus multiply screen overlay darken lighten color-dodge color-burn hard-light soft-light difference exclusion contrast invert invert-rgb grain-merge grain-extract hue saturation color value

    Building

    Defines how building structures are rendered on a map.

    building-fill building-fill-opacity building-height

    building-fill color

    Description The fill color of building walls.
    Sample CartoCSS Code building-fill: #FFFFFF;
    Default Value white, as indicated with the color #FFFFFF.
    Available Values See color.

    building-fill-opacity float

    Description Sets the opacity of the building, including the opacity of the building walls.
    Sample CartoCSS Code building-fill-opacity; 1;
    Default Value 1
    Available Values See float.

    building-height expression

    Description The height of the building, in pixels.
    Sample CartoCSS Code building-height: 0;
    Default Value 0
    Available Values See expression.

    Other CartoCSS Parameters

    Debug-mode string

    Description The mode for debug rendering.
    Sample CartoCSS Code debug-mode: collision;
    Default Value collision
    Available Values See string.

    CartoCSS Values

    The following values can be applied to properties in CartoCSS.

    Color

    CartoCSS accepts a variety of syntaxes for colors - HTML-style hex values, rgb, rgba, hsl, and hsla. It also supports the predefined HTML colors names, such as yellow and blue.

    #line {
      line-color: #ff0;
      line-color: #ffff00;
      line-color: rgb(255, 255, 0);
      line-color: rgba(255, 255, 0, 1);
      line-color: hsl(100, 50%, 50%);
      line-color: hsla(100, 50%, 50%, 1);
      line-color: yellow;
    }

    Note: Using hsl (hue, saturation, lightness) color values are often easier than rgb()values. CARTO also includes several color functions borrowed from Less, a CSS pre-processor:

    // lighten and darken colors
    lighten(#ace, 10%);
    darken(#ace, 10%);
    
    // saturate and desaturate
    saturate(#550000, 10%);
    desaturate(#00ff00, 10%);
    
    // increase or decrease the opacity of a color
    fadein(#fafafa, 10%);
    fadeout(#fefefe, 14%);
    
    // spin rotates a color around the color wheel by degrees
    spin(#ff00ff, 10);
    
    // mix generates a color in between two other colors.
    mix(#fff, #000, 50%);

    Each of above examples uses color variables, literal colors, or is the result of other functions operating on colors.

    Float

    In CartoCSS, float values are numbers specified in pixels. Unlike CSS, numbers are not units, but pixels.

    #line {
      line-width: 2;
    }

    You can also apply simple math using float number values. For example:

    #line {
      line-width: 4 / 2; // division
      line-width: 4 + 2; // addition
      line-width: 4 - 2; // subtraction
      line-width: 4 * 2; // multiplication
      line-width: 4 % 2; // modulus
    }

    URI

    A uniform resource identifier (URI) is a string of characters used to identify the name of a resource, typically a path on your computer or an internet address. You can also apply a URL (as if using HTML), to define a URI image location.

    #markers {
      marker-file: url(http://com.cartodb.users-assets.production.s3.amazonaws.com/simpleicon/map43.svg);
    }

    Note: In Carto, images applied through CartoCSS cannot be selected from folders. You can define a resource of the image location with this URI value.

    String

    In CartoCSS, string values are identified as the text within the quotations. In the following example, the name of the font is the string value.

    shield-face-name: 'Open Sans Bold';

    Note: String values are different than text-name values, which are text label values defined with brackets, as shown in the following example.

    #labels {
      text-name: "[MY_FIELD]";
    }

    Boolean

    Boolean values are either true (Yes, the property is enabled) or false (No, the property is turned off).

    #markers {
      marker-allow-overlap:true;
    }

    Expression

    Expressions are flexible statements that can include fields, numbers, and other types of defined variables. For example, you can build an expression by entering a field name, a relation, set a predefined value, or enter a range of values.

    #buildings {
      building-height: [HEIGHT_FIELD] * 10;
    }

    Numbers

    CartoCSS number values are comma-separated lists, identifying one or more numbers, in a specific order. For example, a number value is used is the line-dasharray property, which specifies a pair of numbers for the value.

    #disputedboundary {
      line-dasharray: 1, 4, 2;
    }

    Percentages

    The percentage symbol, % universally indicates value/100. Use percentage values with ratio-related properties, such as the opacity of a shape or color, as shown in the following example.

    #world {
      // this syntax
      polygon-opacity: 50%;
    
      // is equivalent to:
      polygon-opacity: 0.5;
    }

    Note: Do not use percentages as widths, heights, or other properties. Unlike CSS, percentages are not relative to cascaded classes or page size. They are simply the value divided by one hundred.

    Functions

    Functions are comma-separated lists of one or more functions.

    For example, point-transform, defines function values according to SVG transformation definitions- which are values separated by whitespace and/or commas, from right to left.

    #point {
      point-transform: scale(2, 2);
    }